This verse should serve as a warning for those people who have restricted Islam only to mosques and certain Ibadah, and who behave as if they do not consider financial transactions and ways of interacting with people as part of Shariah. This misconception is particularly prevalent in people who appear to be outwardly religious. There are many people who consider themselves religious, who are punctual with Salah and fasting, and who look religious by their outwardly appearance, but a number of these people are completely negligent of the rights of other human beings, people's financial rights, and their social rights. They do not believe these injunctions to be part of Islam, and do not make an effort to either learn or follow these injunctions.
It is very important to understand that there are five facets of Islam. The first is Aqa'id (Beliefs), for example believing that there will be another life after this one, and that people who have done more good deeds than sins will go to Jannah (Paradise) and vice versa. The second is Ibadah (acts of worship) like praying Salah and giving Zakat etc. Many Muslims think that Islam is restricted to only Aqa'id and Ibadah. The third part is Ma'amlat (financial transactions). The core of Ma'amlat is that a person should not earn or consume any money that he has earned unfairly or against the injunctions of Allah Ta'alah and Rasool Allah (Holy Prophet) ﷺ. The fourth component of Islam is Ma'ashrat which relates to ways of living and how people interact with each other. The fifth part is Akhlaq, or purification of internal attributes. Until a person tries to learn and follow all of these five facets of Islam his islam does not become complete.
From Ma'ariful Quran, by Mufti Muhammad Shafi RE